- Research article
- Open Access
Overexpression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 2 up-regulates NF-κB activity in melanoma cells
© Sun and Stetler-Stevenson. 2009
- Received: 08 May 2009
- Accepted: 23 July 2009
- Published: 23 July 2009
Matrix Metalloproteinase functions in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix that is integral for many normal and pathological processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, tissue repair, and tumor invasion. The tissue inhibitor of the metalloproteinase family including the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) regulates the activity of multifunctional metalloproteinase. It is known that IL-8, the target gene of NF-κB pathway, increases in the melanoma cells. However, it is not clear whether the TIMP-2 expression regulates the NF-κB pathway. In this study, we have used stable melanoma cell lines, parental A2058, A2058T2-1 overexpressing TIMP-2, and A2058T2R-7 underexpressing TIMP-2, to determine the TIMP-2 regulation of the NF-κB activity.
We found that the IL-8 secretion and IL-8 mRNA expression significantly increased in the A2058T2-1 overexpressing TIMP-2. TIMP-2 overexpressed cells had the lower basal level of IκBα, the inhibitor of NF-κB, compared to the parental A2058 cells. The transcriptional NF-κB activity was increased by the TIMP-2 overexpression. In contrast, A2058T2R-7 underexpressing TIMP-2 had the similar NF-κB activity as that in the parental A2058 cell. The apoptotic cells induced by TNF were less in TIMP-2 over-expression cells compared to those in the parental A2058 cells. TIMP-2 over-expression was able to protect cells from apoptosis.
Our data demonstrate that the expression level of TIMP-2 protein can directly modulate the NF-κB pathway in human melanoma cells.
The tissue inhibitor of the metalloproteinases family including the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) regulates the activity of multifunctional metalloproteinases, which regulate the pathogenesis of melanoma and other diseases [1, 2]. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a family of transcription factors that play an essential role in innate and adaptive immune responses, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis [3–6]. Constitutive activation of nuclear factor-B (NF-B) has been directly implicated in tumorigenesis of various cancer types, including melanoma [3–5]. NF-κB is active in the nucleus and its activity is inhibited by the inhibitor of κBα (IκBα). IκBα binds to NF-κB to block the nuclear localization signal so that the NF-κB dimer (p50 & p65) is retained in the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation of IκBα by IκB kinase (IKK) initiates the ubiquitination and degradation of IκB, leading to nuclear translocation and activation of NF-κB . It is known that IL-8, the target gene of NF-κB, increases in the melanoma cells [7, 8]. However, the upstream signalling pathways leading to NF-κB activity in malignant melanoma are unknown until today. It is not clear whether TIMP-2 expression directly regulates the proinflammatory NF-κB pathway.
We have established stable melanoma cell lines: parental A2058 expressing, A2058T2-1 overexpressing, and A2058T2R-7 underexpressing TIMP-2 . Alternation of the TIMP-2-production is correlated with changes in the morphology of the infectant cell lines. A2058T2R-7 cells underexpressing TIMP-2 are smaller, more elongated, and spindle shaped in appearance compared to the parental A2058. A2058T2-1 overexpressing TIMP-2 cells have more sites for peripherial cell attachment and are larger, more spread than the A2058 parental cells. In addition, TIMP-2 expression has an effect on the cell attachment. Cell line with overexpression TIMP-2 showed increased adhesion to tissue culture plastics, gelatine, fibronectin, and vitronectin . In the current study, we used these cell lines to examine the relationship between TIMP-2 expression and NF-κB activity in melanoma cells. The TIMP-2 regulation of the NF-κB activity was investigated at different levels including total and phosphorylated IκBα, p65 phosphorylation, NF-κB transcriptional activity, target gene IL-8 expression, and cell apoptosis.
TIMP-2 expression increases the IL-8 protein secretion and IL-8 mRNA expression
TIMP-2 over-expression decreases IκBα, inhibitor of NF-κB activity
TIMP-2 over-expression elevates the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65
Transcriptional activity of NF-κB is increased by TIMP-2
TIMP-2 overexpression inhibits TNF-induced apoptosis
In this study, we have used stable melanoma cell lines, parental A2058, A2058T2-1 overexpressing TIMP-2, and A2058T2R-7 underexpressing TIMP-2, to determine the TIMP-2 regulation of the NF-κB activity. Our data clearly indicate the effects of TIMP-2 on the NF-κB pathway including the decreased basal level of IκBα, increased phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB, increased transcriptional NF-κB activity, and elevated IL-8 levels in the TIMP-2-overexpressed A2028T2-1 cells. As a biological effect regulated by the NF-κB pathway, TIMP-2 over-expression is able to protect cells from apoptosis.
Our results demonstrate that TIMP-2 expression can directly modulate the NF-κB pathway in melanoma cells. Studies in lung cancer cells demonstrated that NF-κB activity was increased by exposure to TIMP-2 as well . The NF-κB transcription factor is known to act as a tumor promoter [6, 15]. It is intriguing that TIMP-2 up-regulates NF-κB activity, whereas TIMP-2-overexpression can prevent tumor invasion . Other data suggest a dual function of NF-κB during tumor progression . In the early stages, NF-κB inhibits tumor growth; as further mutations lead to a loss of tumor suppressor expression, the oncogenic functions of NF-κB become unleashed, allowing it to actively contribute to tumorigenesis . Our data indicate that elevated endogenous TIMP-2 can up-regulate the NF-κB activity, which may inhibit tumor growth in the early stage. In addition, over-expression of TIMP-2 in the cells protects cells from apoptosis induced by proinflammatory cytokine TNF. After TNF stimulation, we also measured the NF-κB transcriptional activity by the reporter luciferase assay. We found the NF-κB transcriptional activity in the TIMP-2 overexpressed cells is higher than that in the parental A2058 with TNF treatment (data not shown). However, the IL-8 secretion are equally high in there cell lines after TNF stimulation. We did not find any significant difference among these three cell line (see additional file 1). Since the NF-κB pathway regulates expression of a variety of cytokines and chemokines in addition to IL-8, changes in endogenous TIMP-2 expression may result in a change in the other proinflammatory cytokines. It will be intriguing to further determine the effects of TIMP-2 in cells under stimulation of chronic inflammation.
Previous studies demonstrate that alternation of the TIMP-2-prodcution is correlated with changes in the morphology, cell spread, and adhesion of the infectant A2058 cell lines. Over-expression of TIMP-2 blocks cell surface proteolysis required for release of cells from the matrix, as well as degradation of the extra cellular matrix, both of which would compromise the process of cellular invasion. Therefore, not surprisingly, in an in vivo angiogenesis assay, TIMP-2-transfected cells had reduced levels of blood vessel formation. Conditioned media from TIMP-2 transfectants diminished induction of endothelial cell migration and invasion. TIMP-2 over-expression limited tumor growth in vivo .
TIMP-2 was shown to stimulate proliferation in human cells, including osteosarcoma cells, fibroblasts, and A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells [18–20]. Our data suggest that TIMP-2 over-expression is able to protect cells from apoptosis in human melanoma A2058 cells. It is consistent with the previous studies that TIMP-2 overexpression protects B16F10 melanoma cells from apoptosis . Overall, these data indicate that TIPM-2 modulates other relevant aspects of the melanomatatic phenotypes including cell proliferation and cell survival.
Previous studies showed different TIMP-2 concentration in the condition media from these three cell lines: A2058 1.4 ng/10,000 cells/24 hours, A2058T2-1 6.8 ng/10,000 cells/24 hours, and A2058 T2R-7 0.7 ng/10,000 cells/24 hours. Alteration of TIMP-2 concentration secreted in the media may contribute to the status of the NF-κB pathway and IL-8 secretion in the cell media. The major focus of current manuscript is on the cells without any stimulation. In future studies, we will investigate whether increased exogenous TIMP-2 level leads to the activation of the NF-κB activity in melanoma cells. Since the TIMP-2 under-expressed cell line is not able to completely block the protein expression of TIMP-2, a TIMP-2 knock-out cell line need be established for the investigation of TIMP-2 regulation of the NF-κB activity in vitro and in vivo.
An inflammatory tumor microenvironment fosters tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastatic progression. Targeting NF-κB has potential therapeutic effects in clinical trials. An important step in this direction is to delineate the important intracellular pathways and upstream kinases involved in the up-regulation of NF-κB in melanoma cells. Future study will identify an inflammatory link through TIMPs and NF-κB pathway in melanoma. Understanding the role of TIMP and NF-κB interaction will allow us to elucidate how inflammation modulates tumorigenesis.
In summary, our results show that TIMP-2 over-expression is sufficient to increase the NF-κB activity and protect cells from apoptosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the TIMP-2 upregulation of NF-κB activity in melanoma cells. Our data emphasize the critical role of TIMP-2 in modulating cell survival and invasion through the NF-κB activity.
Human melanoma A2058, A2058T2-1, and A2058T2R-7 cells were maintained in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and penicillin-streptomycin as previously described . Equal number of cells was plated in 6-well plates. After growing for 24 hours, cells were harvested for assays.
Cells were plated in 6-well plates. After growing for 24 hours and reaching about 70%–80% confluence, cultured cells were rinsed twice in ice-cold HBSS, lysed in protein loading buffer (50 mM Tris, pH 6.8, 100 mM dithiothreitol, 2% SDS, 0.1% bromphenol blue, 10% glycerol), and sonicated. Equal amount of proteins or equal volumes of total cultured cell lysates were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose, and immunoblotted with primary antibodies (1: 500 to 1000 dilution): anti-phospho-IκBα (Ser32/36) antibody (Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA, USA), anti-phospho-p65 on serine 536 (Cell Signaling Technology), anti-IκBα, anti-p65 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, USA), or β-actin (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) antibodies and visualized by ECL as previously described [21, 22].
Equal number of cells was plated in 6-well plates. After growing for 24 hours, the supernatant was collected and assayed for IL-8 using the R&D Systems human IL-8 ELISA kit (R&D, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) according to the manufacturer's instructions as previously described [21–23].
Quantitative real-time PCR analysis
Total RNA was extracted from epithelial cell monolayers using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). The RNA integrity was verified by electrophoresis gel. RNA reverse transcription was done using the iScript cDNA synthesis kit (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) according to the manufacturer's directions. The RT cDNA reaction products were subjected to quantitative real-time PCR using the MyiQ single-color real-time PCR detection system (Bio-Rad) and iQ SYBR green supermix (Bio-Rad) according to the manufacturer's directions. IL-8 cDNA was amplified by using primers to the human IL-8 gene that are complementary to regions in exon 1 (5'-TGCATAAAGACATACTCCAAACCT) and overlapping the splice site between exons 3 and 4 (5'-AATTCTCAGCCCTCTTCAAAAA). All expression levels were normalized to the GAPDH levels of the same sample, using forward (5-CTTCACCACCATGGAGAAGGC) and reverse (5'-GGCATGGACTGTGGTCATGAG) primers for GAPDH. Percent expression was calculated as the ratio of the normalized value of each sample to that of the corresponding untreated control cells. All real-time PCR reactions were performed in triplicate. All PCR primers were designed using Lasergene software (DNAStar, Madison, WI).
Cells were grown in 24-well plates in triplicates. At ~70–80% confluence, the cells were cotransfected with NF-κB reporter plasmid pNF-κB-Luc (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA, USA) and control plasmid pRL-TK (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) using LipofectAMINE (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA). After 24 h, the cells were lysed, and luciferase activity was determined using the Dual Luciferase Reporter Assay System (Promega). Firefly luciferase activity was normalized with Renilla luciferase activity, and the activity was expressed as relative units as previously described [21, 22].
After 6 h of treatment with TNF, 1 × 106 adherent cells were trypsinized and incubated with FITC-conjugated annexin V (binds to phosphatidyl serine on the cytoplasmic surface of the cell membrane) and propidium iodide (PI) for 15 min in the dark according to the manufacturer's protocol (Annexin VFITC Apoptosis Detection kit; Oncogene Research Products, San Diego, CA, USA). Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry.
We want to thank Anne P. Liao and Yinglin Xia for their excellent technical support. This work was supported by NIDDK KO1 DK075386 to J. S.
- Adair JC, Charlie J, Dencoff JE, Kaye JA, Quinn JF, Camicioli RM, Stetler-Stevenson WG, Rosenberg GA: Measurement of gelatinase B (MMP-9) in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with vascular dementia and Alzheimer disease. Stroke a journal of cerebral circulation 2004,35(6):e159–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stetler-Stevenson WG: Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in cell signaling: metalloproteinase-independent biological activities. Science signaling 2008,1(27):re6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meyskens FL Jr, Buckmeier JA, McNulty SE, Tohidian NB: Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B in human metastatic melanomacells and the effect of oxidative stress. Clin Cancer Res 1999,5(5):1197–1202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shattuck-Brandt RL, Richmond A: Enhanced degradation of I-kappaB alpha contributes to endogenous activation of NF-kappaB in Hs294T melanoma cells. Cancer research 1997,57(14):3032–3039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Amiri KI, Richmond A: Role of nuclear factor-kappa B in melanoma. Cancer metastasis reviews 2005,24(2):301–313.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Greten FR, Karin M: The IKK/NF-kappaB activation pathway-a target for prevention and treatment of cancer. Cancer letters 2004,206(2):193–199.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peng HH, Liang S, Henderson AJ, Dong C: Regulation of interleukin-8 expression in melanoma-stimulated neutrophil inflammatory response. Experimental cell research 2007,313(3):551–559.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang S, DeGuzman A, Bucana CD, Fidler IJ: Level of interleukin-8 expression by metastatic human melanoma cells directly correlates with constitutive NF-kappaB activity. Cytokines, cellular & molecular therapy 2000,6(1):9–17.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ray JM, Stetler-Stevenson WG: Gelatinase A activity directly modulates melanoma cell adhesion and spreading. The EMBO journal 1995,14(5):908–917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bonizzi G, Karin M: The two NF-kappaB activation pathways and their role in innate and adaptive immunity. Trends Immunol 2004,25(6):280–288.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakanishi C, Toi M: Nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitors as sensitizers to anticancer drugs. Nat Rev Cancer 2005,5(4):297–309.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sakurai H, Chiba H, Miyoshi H, Sugita T, Toriumi W: IkappaB kinases phosphorylate NF-kappaB p65 subunit on serine 536 in the transactivation domain. The Journal of biological chemistry 1999,274(43):30353–30356.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hayden MS, Ghosh S: Signaling to NF-kappaB. Genes Dev 2004,18(18):2195–2224.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lizarraga F, Maldonado V, Melendez-Zajgla J: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 growth-stimulatory activity is mediated by nuclear factor-kappa B in A549 lung epithelial cells. The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 2004,36(8):1655–1663.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Greten FR, Eckmann L, Greten TF, Park JM, Li ZW, Egan LJ, Kagnoff MF, Karin M: IKKbeta links inflammation and tumorigenesis in a mouse model of colitis-associated cancer. Cell 2004,118(3):285–296.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Valente P, Fassina G, Melchiori A, Masiello L, Cilli M, Vacca A, Onisto M, Santi L, Stetler-Stevenson WG, Albini A: TIMP-2 over-expression reduces invasion and angiogenesis and protects B16F10 melanoma cells from apoptosis. International journal of cancer 1998,75(2):246–253.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Perkins ND: NF-kappaB: tumor promoter or suppressor? Trends in cell biology 2004,14(2):64–69.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamashita K, Suzuki M, Iwata H, Koike T, Hamaguchi M, Shinagawa A, Noguchi T, Hayakawa T: Tyrosine phosphorylation is crucial for growth signaling by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2). FEBS letters 1996,396(1):103–107.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Corcoran ML, Stetler-Stevenson WG: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 stimulates fibroblast proliferation via a cAMP-dependent mechanism. The Journal of biological chemistry 1995,270(22):13453–13459.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nemeth JA, Rafe A, Steiner M, Goolsby CL: TIMP-2 growth-stimulatory activity: a concentration- and cell type-specific response in the presence of insulin. Experimental cell research 1996,224(1):110–115.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sun J, Hobert ME, Duan Y, Rao AS, He TC, Chang EB, Madara JL: Crosstalk between NF-kappaB and beta-catenin pathways in bacterial-colonized intestinal epithelial cells. American journal of physiology 2005,289(1):G129–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mustafi R, Cerda S, Chumsangsri A, Fichera A, Bissonnette M: Protein Kinase-zeta inhibits collagen I-dependent and anchorage-independent growth and enhances apoptosis of human Caco-2 cells. Mol Cancer Res 2006,4(9):683–694.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sun J, Mustafi R, Cerda S, Chumsangsri A, Xia YR, Li YC, Bissonnette M: Lithocholic acid down-regulation of NF-kappaB activity through vitamin D receptor in colonic cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2008,111(1–2):37–40.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.