SP induces IL-1α mRNA expression in neoplastic and normal cervical tissue explants. SP induce IL-1α mRNA expression in neoplastic (A) and normal (B) cervical tissue explant. SP induces the expression of IL-1α in normal cervical tissue via the activation of EP2/EGFR/PI3 kinase inflammatory pathways as determined by qPCR (C). Data represented as mean ± SEM of (n = 12 (A), n = 10 (B) and n = 7 (c), respectively). Paired T-tests were conducted on the untransformed means of the replicates between SP and control and unpaired T-tests performed on SP versus SP and inhibitor after conversion to fold increases. *, ** and *** represent significance at P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively.