SP induces IL-1α mRNA and protein expression in HeLa cells. Relative expression of IL-1α mRNA (A) and IL-1α protein (B) in HeLa cells treated with SP (1:50 dilution) relative to PBS (control) for 4, 8, 16, or 24 hrs as determined by qPCR and ELISA. Data are presented as mean ± SEM from 5 (A) and 6 (B) independent experiments (n = 5 and 6). Paired T-tests were conducted on the untransformed means of the replicates between SP and control. *, **, and *** indicates significance at P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively.