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Table 5 Pathogenic proteins that target TRAFs

From: TRAF molecules in cell signaling and in human diseases

Viral or bacterial proteins TRAFs Mechanisms Ref.
Function as DUBs of TRAFs    
Lb(pro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus TRAF3, TRAF6 Deubiquitinates TRAF3 and 6 to inhibit RIG-I signaling [21]
X protein (HBx) of hepatitis B virus TRAF3 Deubiquitinates TRAF3 to inhibit RIG-I signaling [240]
YopJ of the Gram- bacterium Yersinia pestis TRAF3, TRAF6 Deubiquitinates TRAF3 and 6 to inhibit TLR signaling [241]
Disrupt the formation of TRAF signaling complex
Gn protein of NY-1 hantavirus TRAF3 Disrupts the interaction of TRAF3 and TBK1-IKKε [242]
M protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus TRAF3 Prevents the formation of TRAF3-TBK1-IKKε complex [243]
A52R of vaccinia virus TRAF6 Disrupts the signaling complex of TRAF6 and IRAK2 [244]
K7 of vaccinia virus TRAF6 Disrupts the signaling complex of TRAF6 and IRAK2 [20]
Usurp TRAFs for viral signaling
LMP1 of Epstein-Barr virus TRAF1, 2, 3, 5, 6 Sequesters cellular TRAF3, and usurps TRAF1, 2, 3, 5 [245249]
   and 6 to mimic constitutively activated CD40 signaling  
BRRF1 lytic gene product (Na) of Epstein-Barr virus TRAF2 Utilizes TRAF2 for JNK activation and lytic gene [254]
   expression  
v-FLIP of Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) TRAF2, TRAF3 Recruits TRAF2 and 3 to activate NF-κB and JNK, and [255]
   to induce cell survival in primary effusion lymphomas  
U(L)37 tegument protein of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) TRAF6 Activates TRAF6 and NF-κB to induce IL-8 expression [256]
Modify TRAF signaling complex
MC159 of human molluscum contagiosum virus TRAF2, TRAF3 Recruits TRAF2 and 3 to Fas signaling complex [250]
   and inhibits Fas-induced apoptosis  
Induce miRNAs to target TRAFs
Tat protein of HIV-1 TRAF3 Up-regulates miR-32 that directly targets TRAF3 [251]
VSV TRAF6 Up-regulates miR-146a that targets TRAF6 and IRAK1 [252]